Sedge and Grass

  1. Pictured below is the sedge I found. It is a little difficult to see but it has a fused sheath connected to the leaf. The leaf is hard to tear off since the sheath goes down the stem. 
  2. This second picture is a grass. The sheath is more open instead of fused like the sedge. The leaf is able to tear off easily since the sheath does not go all the way down the stem. 

Plants and Soil Type

  1. Tulip Tree-I found a lot of Tulip Trees at my botanical survey site near the sandstone ledges. This is because Tulip Trees prefer acidic soil. (https://www.thespruce.com/how-to-grow-tulip-trees-2132098#:~:text=Soil,soil%20that%20is%20too%20shallow.)
  2. American Beech-I also found a numerous amount of these trees in the area surrounding the sandstone ledges. These trees also like acidic soil so they grow best near the sandstone which creates acidic soil.

Monocots and Dicots

  1. Stout Blue Eyed grass-This flower is a monocot. I was able to determine this because monocots have flower parts in 3s and this flower has 6 petals. Monocots also have parallel veins, which this flower also has. 
  2. Cloudberry- This flower is a dicot. I determined this because dicots have flower parts in 4s and 5s and this flower had 5 petals. Dicots also normally have branching veins which this flower has. 

Plant-Animal Seed interactions

  1. Apple tree-Since it is only spring, the fruits I found on an apple tree were small. Once a full apple forms, it will hold seeds inside. This tree is enticing animals to eat its fruit which contain the seeds. The seeds survive the digestive tract, and will be spread to a new location when the animal desiccates. 
  2. Sweetgum tree-These trees produce a hard, spikey pod that contain the seeds. I did some research and found that only small birds are able to get into these small spikey pods and it deters larger birds. The small birds help to spread the seeds.

Two Ferns

  1. Polystichum arostichoides-Christmas fern. This fern is monomorphic, pinnate, and evergreen. 
  2. Thelypteris palustris-Marsh Fern. This fern is monomorphic and pinnate-pinnatifid. 

 Two Mosses

  1. Plagiomnium cuspidatum (Baby tooth moss)-Acrocarp with broad/ovate leaves. I found this moss in the woods near my house on the bank of a small creek, in the soil. I believe it is a Baby tooth moss because it looks like a tiny vascular plant with leaves growing out of each side and I was able to identify a costa in each of the broad leaves.
  2. Anomodon rostratus (Yellow yarn moss)- pleurocarp with costate lance leaves. I found this moss near the other moss, on the bank of a small creek in the soil as well. I believe it is Yellow yarn moss because each of the leaves comes to a very pointed end, and the branches are arranged so they look fuzzy.

Two Shrubs

  1. Sambucus nigra-Elderberry. 
  2. Rosa multiflora-Multiflora Rose. This shrub has leaflets that are normally in groups of 7-9. The numerous flowers have five petals each. 

Two Threats to Trees

  1. This Ash tree has been almost completely killed by the Emerald Ash Borer. The beetle attacks the trees nutrient carrying vessels. To prevent ash trees from being killed, there is a way to treat the trees. Once an infestation is recognized, quick treatment is necessary so the beetles don’t hop to the next tree.
  2. This Oak tree looks like its at the beginning stages of a leaf spot disease, Tubakia. Tubakia is a fungus that can survive during the winter in twigs and foliage. To treat this, you can remove the infected leaves if it is not widespread. You can also remove some branches.