The marsh we visited was similar to the prairie that we visited, if not moister. The plants throughout the area were grasses and sedges. While the grasses were dominant, there were a handful of small trees spotted across the area as well. These seemed to be cottonwoods and willows. The cottonwood below is most likely Eastern Cottonwood (Populus deltoides).  The prairie also had a large amount of grasses and sedges. These were surrounded by trees and overall the prairie seemed a little drier than the marsh. Flowering plants were also scattered around the edges of the open field. Pictured below is Wild Rye, a species in the grass family.

Cedar Bog was a very moist environment with a center forest-like area with tall grass prairies scattered around and throughout it. The wooded area had streams running through it and fully grown trees (unlike the marsh). Cedar Bog should technically be named Cedar Fen. Bogs take in water from rain but only get rid of it by evaporation. This leads to large amounts of decayed matter sitting under the surface for long amounts of time producing acidic features. Fens, on the other hand, have streams that run throughout them and drain the system. They have less built up decayed matter and have more alkaline features due to limestone. The geology behind the formation of this fen is the ground water being pushed up from beneath the surface because of the moraines on either side of the area.

There were a handful of invasive species at Cedar Bog. The first was a plant known as hops (Humulus japonicus). These plants were found in dense patches and at times taller than three feet. They had opposite leaves with toothed edges with many clusters of cone shaped fruits. Hops are known for being used in beer production but unfortunately, this species is not. https://www.mda.state.mn.us/plants/pestmanagement/weedcontrol/noxiouslist/japanesehops

Another type of invasive species found at cedar bog is a type of invasive rose. Japanese rose (Rosa multiflora) is a plant that has a stem with spines and a red hue. It seemed to be densely packed in the underbrush with its branches spreading in every direction. The leaves were alternate and toothed and had spiky stipules at the base of the leaves. This plant was once used in Virginia to reduce headlight glare on highways. https://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/weedguide/single_weed.php?id=87